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How to Write Footnotes and Endnotes

A quick guide on how to write footnotes for sources. includes several templates for websites, books and journals. It is ideal for students as it can help them write more effectively. It contains a resource list of links to some useful websites. Students should not have problems finding the sources they are looking for with this guide.

This is a brief introduction on how to write footnotes for academic papers and reports. It is intended to aid students in writing their own footnotes, citing sources, and using proper formatting. It lists four different types of footnotes: regular footnotes, hyperlinks, references, and single-space.

Regular footnotes consist of the name of the author and the page number or citation number of the source. Hyperlinks provide text-link coordinates. References are numbered consecutively with each page. Single-space footnotes omit the name and page number of the source. All other types are explained in greater detail in other texts on IBL.

A detailed treatment on how to write footnotes for a thesis can be found at Niederlass and Kohler’s Thesis Citation Manual. Footnotes for bibliography are described in detail. citations from electronic sources used in research are described in nteenth edition of Modern Language Association’s Citation Manual. It is a tool for instructors, editors, and students.

The nineteenth edition of Modern Language Association’s citation manual provides details on how to write footnotes for bibliographic citations. The twenty-first edition updates information on superscript number, page number, and subject name for bibliographies. The citation page number must be double-spaced. Bibliographies used for references must be typed using the font size specified by the system for the discipline used in the bibliography.

Writing footnotes and endnotes are similar but there are differences between the two. Endnotes support end users who want to locate specific end points of a text or resource used in a bibliography or research paper. They serve as a more detailed version of footnotes that are usually written in single spaced fonts using the computer font of the same size as the primary text. Endnotes help readers follow a specific route taken in the original research paper, and they can be identified with the use of author names, page numbers, or subject names.

Footnotes, on the other hand, are not intended to be part of the bibliography or main text. Footnotes are labels placed at the end of a piece of writing to highlight specific details that were referred to in the text. They are not intended to replace the need for citations in the text. A reader looking for information could follow a bibliography, but for accuracy, the writer could also include footnotes or endnotes to highlight additional details about the topic discussed in the bibliography. In some cases, footnotes and endnotes are used together to create a more detailed citation.

There are three major categories used in creating footnotes or endnotes: they can be written directly in the source or reference, they can be placed at the end of a sentence referred to in the source or bibliography, or they can be placed within an essay, book, or article. The most common method of referencing things is by writing them on separate lines either within the body of a text or at the end of a word, phrase, or paragraph. Footnotes can also be placed inside a document or printed matter referring back to the original work cited. Other ways of referencing materials include using a foot symbol ( ~ ), a superimposed number (!, ), or a bold letter(!). A reader is more likely to be able to understand what is being written when the references are written in a style that is clear, precise and consistent.

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